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    Basic Research      

There is a very extensive research base on the risks of using spreadsheets within business see [Panko, 2000] [Panko & Ordway, 2005] [Powell, Baker & Lawson, 2007]. Much of the research has been coordinated and progressed by EuSpRIG [Chadwick, 2003]. Further significant work improving the end user approach to software has been undertaken by the EUSES consortium [EUSES, 2009].

The main known risks of spreadsheets include:

a) Human Error – To err is human, hence the majority (>90%) of spreadsheets contain errors. Because spreadsheets are rarely tested [Panko, 2006] [Pryor, 2004] these errors remain. Recent research has shown that about 50% of spreadsheet
models used operationally in large businesses have material defects [Powell, Baker, Lawson, 2007] [Croll, 2008]. Approximately 50% of executives recently surveyed had encountered spreadsheet related problems up to and including staff dismissal [Caulkins, Morrison & Weideman, 2007].


b) Fraud – Because of the ease with which program code and data is mixed, spreadsheets are the perfect environment for perpetrating fraud [Mittermeir, Clermont, Hodnigg, 2005]. The $600m fraud perpetrated by John Rusnak at AIB/Allfirst was spreadsheet related [Butler, 2002]. Other spreadsheet related frauds have occurred and have been notified to the regulator, but have not been reported.

c) Overconfidence – Because spreadsheet users do not go looking for errors, they don’t find any or many. Spreadsheet users are therefore overconfident in their use of spreadsheets [Panko, 2003].

d) Interpretation – Translation of a business problem into the spreadsheet domain can “…lead to a position where decision makers may act in the belief that decisions can be made with confidence on the output from the spreadsheet despite evidence to the contrary” [Banks & Monday, 2002].

e) Archiving – “The case of failed Jamaican commercial banks demonstrates how poor archiving can lead to weaknesses in spreadsheet control that contribute to operational risk” [Lemieux, 2005].

It has recently been suggested that there may be a further series of systemic risks posed by spreadsheets including (but not limited to!) Assumptions, Opacity, Reification and Enterprise Interoperability.

In a continuation of this section, we will cover further basic research.

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